What is RAID?
RAID is extended as Redundant Array of Independent Disks. RAID is a disk in which various independent and relatively small disks into a single storage of a large size. The disks involved into the array are commonly known as array members. The disks joined into the array in multiple ways which are known as RAID level and each level has its own properties and characteristics. It has the capability to the existence of one or various disk failure by the fault-tolerance. It has offers the best performance which displays the change in the read and writes speed of the entire array as compared to a single disk. The capacity of the array which depends on the amount of user data and on the RAID level which does not always match the sum of the sizes of the RAID member disks.
RAID is organized by basically two independent aspects such as the organization of data in the array in which contains RAID storage techniques that are mirroring, striping, parity, a combination of them and second is the implementation of each particular RAID installation either hardware as well as software.
Storing data in the array by Striping, Mirroring and Parity. In the striping, the flow of data into the blocks of a fixed size known as block size then writing these blocks across RAID one by one.it affects on the performance during the data storage. Through the Mirroring, identical copies of data are stored on the RAID members simultaneously. It affects the fault tolerance as well as the performance. Finally, Parity is a storage technique in which certain parity function is calculated for the data blocks. If a drive fails in that situation missing block is recalculated from the checksum which is provided the facility by RAID fault tolerance.
Actually, there were five RAID levels, but many variations have evolved, several nested levels and many non-standard levels:
RAID 0: It is based on striping. It is a process of diving a body of data into blocks and spreading the data blocks across multiple storage devices such as hard disks or SSDs. Storage systems perform the task in several ways such as byte, block or partition level. RAID 0 is generally used for storage which is noncritical but needs high-speed reads and writes. It also provides your caching live streaming video and video editing.
RAID 1: It utilizes the disk mirroring in which replication of data between two or more disks. Disk mirroring is used for the applications that require high availability and performance like transactional applications such as email and operating system. It also provides a fault tolerance for the loss of no more than one member disk.
RAID 0+1: It is the based on the combination of striping and mirroring techniques. This level is the inherits of RAID 0 performance and RAID 1 fault tolerance.
RAID1E: In this level uses both striping and mirroring techniques. It has the ability to survive if any one member disk or number of nonadjacent disks fail to perform. There are generally three subtypes of RAID 1E layout that is near, invented and far.
RAID 5: This level utilizes striping as well as parity techniques. It also provides the facility to read speed improvement as in RAID 0 approx and also survives if one RAID member disk is a loss. But its worst condition is that when a single or logical section is written at this time original sector and according to parity section requires to read then the main data is deleted from the parity.
RAID 5E: This level is the variation of RAID 5 but in this quite difference between them which is an integrated spare space allowing to rebuild a failed array instantly at the time of disk failure.
RAID 5 with delayed parity: this RAID level is also similar to basic RAID 5 layout but in this only uses the nonstandard scheme of striping.
RAID 6: In this level uses two different parity functions. Its read speed is the same as in RAID 5. It allows two disk failures within the RAID set before any data is lost. This level is generally used for the environments that require long data retention periods like archiving. Its main disadvantage is that each set parties calculated particularly in order to get slow write performance.
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